Additional reading

  • Agache I, Song Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. Efficacy and safety of treatment with biologicals for severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: A systematic review for the EAACI guidelines. Allergy. 2021;76:2337-2353.
  • Alobid I, Antón E, Armengot M, et al. SEAIC-SEORL. Consensus document on nasal polyposis. POLINA project. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2011;21(suppl 1):1-58.
  • Bachert C, Akdis CA. Phenotypes and emerging endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4:621-628.
  • Bachert C, Bhattacharyya N, Desrosiers M, Khan AH. Burden of disease in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. J Asthma Allergy. 2021;14:127-134.
  • Bachert C, Han JK, Desrosiers M, et al. Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (LIBERTY NP SINUS-24 and LIBERTY NP SINUS-52): results from two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase 3 trials. Lancet. 2019;394:1638-1650.
  • Bachert C, Marple B, Hosemann W, et al. Endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: pathology and possible therapeutic implications. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;8:1514-1519.
  • Bhattacharyya N, Gilani S. Prevalence of potential adult chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms in the United States. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;159:522-525.
  • Borish L, Baroody FM, Kim MS, et al. Yardstick for the medical management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2022;128:118-128.
  • Cardell LO, Stjärne P, Jonstam K, Bachert C. Endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis: impact on management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;145:752-756.
  • DeConde AS, Smith TL. Classification of chronic rhinosinusitis—working toward personalized diagnosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2017;50:1-12.
  • Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Hopkins C, et al. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2020. Rhinology. 2020;58(suppl S29):1-464.
  • Hull BP, Chandra RK. Refractory chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2017;50:61-81.
  • Maniu AA, Perde-Schrepler MI, Tatomir CB, et al. Latest advances in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps endotyping and biomarkers, and their significance for daily practice. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2020;61:309-320.
  • Morse JC, Shilts MH, Ely KA, et al. Patterns of olfactory dysfunction in chronic rhinosinusitis identified by hierarchical cluster analysis and machine learning algorithms. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2019;9:255-264.
  • Naclerio R, Baroody F, Bachert C, et al. Clinical research needs for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in the new era of biologics: a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;8:1532-1549.e1.
  • Orlandi RR, Kingdom TT, Smith TL, et al. International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: rhinosinusitis 2021. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021;11:213-739.
  • Patel GB, Peters AT. The role of biologics in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Ear Nose Throat J. 2021;100:44-47.
  • Schleimer RP. Immunopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Annu Rev Pathol. 2017;12:331-357.
  • Stevens W, Schleimer R, Kern R. Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(4):565-72.
  • Tan BK, Chandra RK, Pollak J, et al. Incidence and associated premorbid diagnoses of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:1350-1360.
  • Tomassen P, Vandeplas G, Van Zele T, et al. Inflammatory endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis based on cluster analysis of biomarkers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:1449–1456.e4.
  • Workman AD, Kohanski MA, Cohen NA. Biomarkers in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2018;38:679-692.


Scientific Council

Neil M. Bressler, MD

James P. Gills Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medicine
Baltimore, MD

A. Paul Chous, MA, OD, FAAO

Specializing in Diabetes Eye Care & Education, Chous Eye Care Associates
Adjunct Professor of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences
AOA Representative, National Diabetes Education Program
Tacoma, WA

Steven Ferrucci, OD, FAAO

Chief of Optometry, Sepulveda VA Medical Center
Professor, Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University
Sepulveda, CA

Julia A. Haller, MD

Wills Eye Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

Allen C. Ho, MD, FACS

Director, Retina Research
Wills Eye Hospital
Professor and Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology
Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
Philadelphia, PA

Charles C. Wykoff, MD, PhD

Director of Research, Retina Consultants of Houston
Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology
Blanton Eye Institute & Houston Methodist Hospital
Houston, TX

Copyright © 2020 | CLEAR Initiative | All Rights Reserved | Website by Divigner

CLEAR Initiative

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyplosis (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses that is associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life.

The pathophysiology of CRSwNP is associated with local and systemic inflammation, with ongoing symptoms of nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and loss of smell. These symptoms result in a significant burden on patients.

As one of the most common medical conditions in the US, CRSwNP has a predominately type 2 inflammatory endotype. It is typically treated with medical management consisting of inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroid bursts, and saline irrigation. Leukotriene antagonists and antibiotics are also used, and if medical management fails, surgical intervention is typically chosen. Additionally, biologics that target type 2 inflammation are now available. These have been or will be approved for use in these patients.

Our CLEAR program is an online tool that aims to provide clinicians and patients with up-to-date information on the presentation, prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies for individuals with CRSwNP. Our goal is to provide information that empowers clinicians and patients to speak openly about treatment decisions and improve the standard of care for patients with this challenging disease.

Thank you for visiting our website. We invite you to explore the Clinician Toolkit and Patient Toolkit links as well as our pages on CME events, a poster portal to create your own poster, links to animated videos, and much more!

This activity is provided by Med Learning Group. This activity is co-provided by Ultimate Medical Academy/Complete Conference Management (CCM).
This activity is supported by an independent medical education grant from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Sanofi.

Copyright © 2019 | CLEAR Initiative | All Rights Reserved | Website by Divigner